Intro to HTML

What Is It?

HTML is a coding language composed of various types of tags, also known as elements. These are what are used to build web pages.

Standard Page Structure

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>My House</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>My house is a very very very fine
     house, with two cats in the yard.</p>
    <p>Life used to be <strong>so
     hard</strong>; now everything is
     easy cause of you.</p>
  </body>
</html>

Elements (aka Tags)

Lets break down the page structure above. You can see above, all HTML tags are surrounded by angle brackets. You can also see that every tag has what is known as a closing tag. These are the tags that have a preceeding forward slash. For the most part, every HTML tag needs to have a closing tag.

Examples of Structural Tags (Layout)

tag meaning
<head> head (contains metadata)
<body> page body
<div> division
<h1> Heading (level 1)
<p> Paragraph containing text
<span> Text without a line break
<img> Image tag
<link> Link tag
<style> Style tag

Examples of Style Tags

tag example
<b> bold
<i> italic
<strong> strong
<em> emphasis
<br> Line break
<hr> Horizontal rule (dividing line)
<blockquote> "call-out" quotation
etc.

Lab: Create a Web Page

That's enough theory! Let's build something!

Self Closing Tags

Some tags can act as both an opening and a closing tag. These are written with a forward slash at the end, and are most commonly seen for tags that insert something into the page such as an image, or a line break. e.g. <img src="myImg.jpg" /> is a self closing image tag.

Attributes

Attributes further define HTML elements and their purpose. For example, an image tag may have the following attributes:

<img src="/images/cat-pic.jpg" title="Cat Picture" alt="Picture of a fuzzy cat">

Lab: Adding Attributes

Let's add a few attributes to the h1 in the HTML file we just created.

Style vs Layout vs Semantics

This war has raged inside HTML since the beginning of the web.

Some tags exclusively describe how it's contents should be displayed (ex. <b>), where as some describe it's contents (ex. <strong>). Web content isn't just about appearence. It matters how it is intepreted.

Tables

Example Table structure:

<h1>Grocery List</h1>
<table>
  <tr>
    <th>Fruit</th>
    <th>Grains</th>
    <th>Dairy</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Apples</td>
    <td>White Rice</td>
    <td>Milk</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Bananas</td>
    <td>Oatmeal</td>
    <td>Yogurt</td>
  </tr>
</table>

The Result

Grocery List

Fruit Grains Dairy
Apples White Rice Milk
Bananas Oatmeal Yogurt

Lists

<ul>
  <li>Pizza</li>
  <li>Pasta</li>
  <li>Bread</li>
</ul>

The Result

Commenting with HTML

Comments in HTML are not read by browsers. They use the following syntax:

<!-- This is a comment! -->

<!-- I don't want this to be shown because it is silly
<body>
    <div>
        <p>I do not want this content to be shown</p>
        <img src="/images/dog-pic.jpg" alt="this is a doggo" title="Doggo">
    </div>
</body>
-->

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