Description

building a simple file server in Express/NodeJS



Serving Files

At its core, HTTP is a file transfer protocol.

  • the path element of a URL is based on a Unix file path
  • most web servers directly map incoming URL paths to filesystem paths
  • because these files are stored on disk on the server, they are called static files
    • to distinguish from dynamic pages (aka routes) which the server will create on the fly for every request

node-static

In earlier lessons, you may have used the node-static package to serve your HTML, JS, CSS, images, etc...

node-static is a standalone static file server built in NodeJS

It's useful for local development but not great for production deployments

Usage:

$ npm install node-static
$ npx node-static
npx: installed 6 in 1.359s
serving "." at http://127.0.0.1:8080

static file server in Express

  • Express comes with its own static file server
  • Using it is a one-liner:
app.use(express.static('.'))

LAB: static file server

  • create a new Express project dir called static-server:

    cd ~/code
    mkdir static-server
    npm init -y
    npm install express
    code .
    
  • create a file called app.js containing the following code:

const express = require('express')
const app = express()
const port = process.env.PORT || 5000

app.use(express.static('.'))

app.listen(port, () => console.log(`Example app listeningport ${port}!`))
  • create a file called index.html containing
 <h1>Hello in HTML</h1>
  • in package.json, add
{
  "scripts": {
    "start": "node app.js"
  }
}

oops

The good news: your web server can now serve static files to its clients!

The bad news: your web clients can now see any files they like in your project

(including your server source code and configuration files, which may include secrets like passwords)

LAB: Hack Your Own Server

open a web browser and visit http://localhost:5000/package.json

package.json should probably be more secret than that :-)

Solution: public directory

To keep server-side code and configuration files secret, most web apps have a public directory containing static files

This is one major difference between static sites and web apps -- since some of your code runs on your server, and some runs on your client's browser, your project directory structure needs to segregate client-side files from server-side files

  • in your top-level project dir, type mkdir public
  • in your app.js, change the app.use line to

    app.use(express.static('public'))
    

Now you can put HTML, CSS, PNG, and .js files inside /public where your clients can fetch them as needed

  • move index.html from your top-level project dir (static-server) to your public dir

    • either use VS Code's GUI
    • or run mv index.html public from the terminal
  • restart your server

  • Now open a web browser and visit http://localhost:5000/index.html

Note that the URL path /index.html maps directly to the filesystem path static-server/public/index.html

index.html

A little historical note...

  • in the early WWW, visiting a directory always showed a list of all the files in that directory
  • this list was called an index since it was in alphabetical order and just showed names and other information about files, but not their contents
  • some web servers would look for a special file named index.html and if it was present, would serve that file instead of the index
  • these days, most web servers don't show any indexes at all, ever...
  • ...but the default page for a directory is still named index.html
  • This is why index.html is named index -- it is a replacement for the automatic default index page.

Now open a web browser and visit http://localhost:5000/ and you will see the contents of index.html ("Hello in HTML") even though your request did not contain the words "index" or "html", just the path /

Content-Type

  • files on disk usually have extensions that tell you what file type they are

    • .html or .htm means HTML
    • .js means JavaScript
    • .css means CSS Stylesheet
    • etc.
  • but URLs often do not have extensions

    • https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript is an HTML page but does not end in .html
  • so web servers must read the file type extension and then use the Content-Type HTTP header to tell the client what format the file is in

    • text/html means HTML
    • application/javascript means JavaScript
    • text/css means CSS Stylesheet
    • ...these are called MIME Types (after the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions specification)

Viewing Headers

TIP: open the browser DevTools and click on the Headers sub-tab to see Content-Type and other headers:

headers

404 Not Found and other status codes

open a web browser and visit http://localhost:5000/oops.html

if there is an error loading the file (in this case, there is simply no file by that name),

the server must send the correct status code

  • (404 means "not found")

Note: even though there is an error, the server still returns a body and content-type for display to the user.

In this case, we just see Express' boring default error page, but it's possible to get very creative with web site error pages.