A SCOPE is all the variables and functions that are visible from a given location in your code

The sever forms of scope are Global, Local, and Private

Globally scoped variables can be seen from anywhere in the program

Locally scoped variables can be seen only nearby where they are defined -- usually inside the same function or code block

Private variables can only be seen by a specific part of your code, JavaScript does not have native support for private variables. There are changes in the works.

Global Scope

If you declare a variable without a keyword (var, let, const) then it is a global variable and can be seen and used by any line of code in your entire program

Global variables can sometimes be useful, but are also dangerous.

A mistake in any part of your program accessing a global variable could introduce a bug in any other part of your program referencing that same variable.

Scope is a One-Way Mirror

Scope is a one-way mirror -- inner scopes can see out, but outer scopes cannot see in.

one way mirror functions

Mr. Bean -- within the interrogation room scope -- can't see the detectives in the observation room scope.

Block Scope

let and const are block-scoped: any block of code surrounded by { curly braces } can have its own set of local let variables

let name = 'Global';
  let name = 'Mr. Bean';
      let name = 'Detective';

If a variable name can't be found in the current scope, then JavaScript looks in the next outer scope, and so on

Exercise: Guess the Variable

let fruit = 'Apple';
    let fruit = 'Blueberry';
        let name = 'Cantaloupe';
    console.log(name); // What is this fruit?

Functions default to Global

Unless a function definition is nested within another function, or a code block, it will be global.

let name = 'Alice';   // global

// alpha can see variable 'name'
// alpha can see function named 'beta'
let alpha = function() {

// 'alpha' must be called after defined

// the 'beta' definition is hoisted
function beta() {
  // this 'name' is local to 'beta'
  let name = 'Bob';   


Parameters are local to their function

let opinion = 'i love cheese';

function rant(message) {
  let loudMessage = message.toUpperCase() + '!!';
  return loudMessage;

rant function has two locally scoped variables:

Scope Error

When you try to use a variable that is out of scope, you will get an error

function gamma() {
  let x = 'declared inside gamma';
  console.log('Inside gamma: x is ' + x);

console.log(x);  // ReferenceError: x is not defined

Closure Scope

JavaScript also supports lexical scope (aka "closure scope" or "nested scope") which means that variables defined above the current function may also be visible...

function sing() {             // outer function
  let numberOfBottles = 99

  function bottlesOfBeer() {  // inner function
    let message = '' + numberOfBottles
      + ' bottles of beer on the wall';
    return message;

  while (numberOfBottles > 0) {
    numberOfBottles -= 1


bottlesOfBeer is enclosed within sing, so it inherits sing's scope

numberOfBottles is visible inside both sing() and bottlesOfBeer()

Nested Scopes

Every time you call a function, JS creates a new scope

that scope points to the current scope

and so on recursively

(and -- strangely enough -- variables that are defined inside a nested function are still alive after that function returns (?!?!?!) -- more on this at the very end of this lesson)

Why Nested Scopes? 1

function countLetters(words) {
  let letterCount = 0;

  words.forEach(function(word) {
    letterCount += word.length;

  return letterCount;

total is visible inside the inner (callback) function as well as the outer (countLetters), so forEach can behave like other loops

Why Nested Scopes? 2

This will not work:

function addLetterCount(word) {
  letterCount += word.length;

function countLetters(words) {
  let letterCount = 0;
  return letterCount;

...because addLetterCount is not nested inside countLetters

Exercise: Guess the Variable with Functions

let poet = 'Robert Frost';

function famousPoem(poet) {
  let poemAuthors = {
    'Robert Frost': 'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening',
    'Walt Whitman': 'Leaves of Grass',
    undefined: 'The Lanyard';, // Billy Collins

  function findAuthor(poet) {
    // looks up the poem by author
    return poemAuthors[poet];

  return findAuthor(poet);

console.log(famousPoem('Walt Whitman')); // Which Poem?
console.log(famousPoem(poet)); // Which Poem?

poet = 'Maya Angelou';
console.log(famousPoem()); // Which Poem?
Hint 1
The inner function `findAuthor` can see the variable `poemAuthors`
Hint 2
The call to `famousPoem(poet)` can see the variable `poet` defined on line 1
Hint 3
Calling a function without an argument causes the variable in the function definition to become `undefined` during the call

console.log(famousPoem('Walt Whitman')); // Leaves of Grass
console.log(famousPoem(poet)); // Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
console.log(famousPoem()); // The Lanyard

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