Types of Media

There are many types of media, but they can generally be broken down into three broad types

  • Image
  • Video
  • Audio

In this lesson we will look at how you can use these different media types in your web pages.

Embedding Images

You can include an image in your HTML documents by using an <img> tag with a src attribute pointing to either a URL where the image is hosted, or a relative file path to the location of the image in your file structure.

Image Types

There are many different types of images (svg, png, ptg, psd, krd, ai, gif, jpg, and the list goes on), however we are going to focus on the three most common types of images you'll find around the web; JPGs (or JPEGs), PNGs, and SVGs.


Your most basic image type. These images tend to have very small file sizes, but they also don't have quite as many features as other image types.

These are pixel based images so they won't scale very well beyond their original size. They also don't support transparency, and so will block anything behind them in a rectangle with the dimensions of the image.

JPGs and JPEGs are the same type of image, however when embedding them in your page you will need to make sure you are using the correct file extension otherwise your site won't be able to locate the image. Also case matters!


PNGs, like JPGs, are a pixel based image type, and as such do not scale well beyond their original size. However, unlike JPGs, PNGs support transparency, and as such can appear to be irregular shapes.

Despite how they appear they are still rectangular and as such will prevent you from interacting with elements that are behind them even though you can see through them.


SVG stands for standard vector graphic and unlike other types of images they are not made out of pixels. They are instead collections of instructions that tell the computer how to draw a specific shape.

Since they are not blocks of pixels SVGs can be scaled up indefinitely with no detrimental effects on quality, and they have very small file sizes compared to the other two image types covered above. They also are exactly the shape they appear to be and as such will only block what they appear to cover.

Lab: Embedding Images

Let's go to our trusty "example-html" directory, and add some images to make your page more engaging!

  • add in one image from an external source per section on your index.html document

    • There are many sites around the web that serve up placeholder images. PlaceKitten is the classic, though PlaceCage, and FillMurray are both hilarious
  • Choose an image from your computer to include on your About page

  • Create a subdirectory named "images" (or 'imgs', or 'pictures', or whatever name makes sense to you)

  • Place a copy of your chosen image into the newly created subdirectory.

  • Embed that image into your About page.

  • Bonus Challenge: What happens when you wrap an image in an anchor tag?


Video is a popular part of many web apps, and can provide a hook to draw people into your age. There are several ways to get video (or video-like) content into your page.

  • embedding the video directly
  • embedding the video using an iFrame
  • creating an animation using JavaScript and the <canvas> element

You can also animate SVGs by applying transformations to them that are triggered under certain conditions

Embedded Video

Videos are fun! An exciting video can be a great way to present information, or draw people into your site.

There are two ways to embed a video file directly into your site. As with so many things in programming both have their benefits and drawbacks.

Embedding Directly

By embedding a video directly into your site you can always make sure that your video is available.

This is great for very small video files, but when working with larger video files it can slow your page's load time to a crawl, or even crash your site.

Embedding an iFrame

A better way to embed a (relatively) large video file would be to use an <iframe> element. iframes open a window in your page to another site.

This means that you can host your video on a dedicated video platform (like YouTube) and then just reference that location in your iframe. This will prevent a video from slowing down your page's loading however the video may not be available immediately when the page loads.

You will also need to make sure that you have the proper permissions to access your chosen video hosting platform, and if the url path to that video changes it will break your iframe.

Lab: Embedding an iFrame

Let's add a video to our site! Open up YouTube, and find a short video, and a long video. Leave them open in different tabs. (Computers muted please!)

  • Open up your "example-html" directory if it's not already open.
  • Go back to the open video tabs, and click on the "share" button
    • Choose the "embed" option, and copy the code for the iframe element it gives you
    • Paste that code into your index.html file

Animation with Canvas

You can also animate elements within a <canvas> element using JavaScript. Canvas elements work by continuously redrawing, or transforming their contents as directed by your JavaScript. Most animations make heavy use of the setTimeout, setInterval and requestAnimationFrame functions. There are also canvas specific methods (such as requestAnimationFrame()) that can be used to control animations.

Since your animations are completely controlled by JavaScript it is suprisingly easy to make your animations interactive.

There is a good tutorial for working with animations on MDN

Animating SVGs

Animating SVGs is done primarily through updates to the css that tells your browser how to draw the svg. There are some JavaScript libraries you can use to simplify this process such as Snap SVG


You can include audio in your site using an <audio> element with a src attribute that points to the location of your audio files. Or by using JavaScript to create a new Audio object let myAudio = new Audio('filename.mp3') and setting it to play on an event. You can also open a window to a dedicated audio hosting platform like soundcloud using an <iframe> element to speed up page load just like you would for video.